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meaning "town on the Monnow") is the historic county town of Monmouthshire, Wales.
It is situated where the River Monnow meets the River Wye, within 2 miles (3.2 km) of the border with England.
A new castle was built at Monmouth, holding commanding views over the surrounding area from a sound defensive site and exerting control over both river crossings and the area's important resources of farmland, timber and minerals.
Initially it would have been a motte and bailey castle, later rebuilt in stone, and refortified and developed over time.
It now serves as a shopping and service centre, and as a focus of educational and cultural activities for its surrounding rural area.
The name Monmouth is an English contraction of 'Monnow-mouth'.
The town is 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Cardiff, and 113 miles (182 km) west of London.
It is within the Monmouthshire local authority, and the parliamentary constituency of Monmouth.
The castle later came into the possession of the House of Lancaster, and was the birthplace of King Henry V in 1387.
A town grew up around it, and a Benedictine priory was established around 1075 by Withenoc, a Breton who became lord of Monmouth after Roger, the son of William fitz Osbern, was disgraced.
The priory may have once been the residence of the monk Geoffrey of Monmouth, who was born around 1100 and is best known for writing the chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae ("History of the Kings of Britain").
In the mid 14th century, the castle and town came into the possession of the House of Lancaster through the marriage of John of Gaunt to Blanche of Lancaster.
John of Gaunt strengthened the castle, adding the Great Hall, and the castle became a favourite residence of the House of Lancaster.